Risk factors for venous thrombosis

Immobility
Trauma or surgery especially: pelvis, hip and lower limbs.
Heart failure and/or Recent maycardial infarction.
Pregnancy.
Malignancy
Previous DVT or PE
Thrombophilia and Polycythemia
Varicose veins
Nephrotic syndrome
Infection
Obesity

Clinical probability of DVT

The clinical diagnosis of DVT is generally though to be unreliable. However, Wells et al. suggest a checklist of major and minor clinical criteria, which suggest whether a patient is at low, moderate or high risk of having suffered a DVT, and which may guide subsequent investigation and management.

Major criteria:

Active cancer
Paralysis, paresis or plaster immobilization of the lower limbs
Recently bedridden for more than 3 days, or major surgery within the previous 4 weeks
Localized tenderness along the distribution of the deep venous system
Thigh and calf swollen (should be measured); calf circumference 3 cm greater than on symptom less side, measured 10 cm below the tibial tuberosity
Strong family history of DVT (at least 2 first degree relatives)

Minor criteria:

History of recent trauma (within 60 days) to symptomatic leg
Pitting oedema of symptomatic leg only
Dilated, non-varicose, superficial veins in symptomatic leg only
Hospitalisation within previous 6 months
Erythema


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